Meningitis – An Inflammation Of Membranes Covering Spinal Cord And Brain

It can be critical due to the proximity of the inflammation to the spinal cord and brain. If it is not treated promptly, meningitis may bring about grave lasting consequences like epilepsy, deafness, cognitive deficits and hydrocephalus. Immunization may prevent some types of meningitis. The meningitis type and the cause can be ascertained by a doctor with test results of the laboratory.

Viral meningitis or aseptic meningitis has been found to be the most frequent meningitis type and it is less serious compared to bacterial meningitis. Most aseptic meningitis cases are owing to viruses named enteroviruses which are capable of infecting the small intestine and stomach. A few cases are due to diverse viruses called arboviruses, which are transmitted through infected mosquitoes. Viral meningitis cases are rarely fatal and as a rule the patients get complete recovery.

Bacterial meningitis often is more serious compared to aseptic meningitis, especially in the elderly and infants. Before the commencement of extensive use of antibiotics, 70% or more cases of bacterial meningitis were fatal; by means of antibiotic treatment, now the fatal cases have gone down to 15% or even less. In the spring and winter, bacterial meningitis is found to be most frequent. Most bacterial meningitis cases are instigated by three bacteria: Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneomoniae or Neisseria meningitides.

Meningitis cannot be considered as highly contagious. Both bacterial meningitis and viral meningitis can get propagated by straight contact with secretions of throat and nose. Healthy people having no signs of the disease can carry the bacteria inside their throat or nose and propagate them infecting others. Sharing a cup, glass or utensil for eating, sneezing or coughing into another person’s face or cigarette sharing are instances of ways for occurrences of contact with respiratory secretions of another person. Viral meningitis can get transmitted as a result of faecal contamination over and above respiratory secretions as a person with the infection excretes or sheds virus in the stool.

Signs and symptoms of meningitis

The most frequent meningitis symptoms are neck stiffness and headache coupled with confusion or distorted consciousness, vomiting, fever and incapability of tolerating loud noises or phonophobia and light or phtophobia. At times, particularly in small kids merely nonspecific symptoms are present for example, drowsiness and irritability. When there is the presence of a rash, it may signify a specific cause for meningitis; for example, meningitis brought about through meningococcal bacteria can be associated with a distinctive rash.

Diagnosis and treatment of meningitis

The test of cerebrospinal fluid can be performed for ascertaining the meningitis type bringing about the symptoms. Such detection is essential in choosing effectual antibiotics to treat cases of bacterial meningitis.

Treatment of patients with aseptic or viral meningitis usually involves diminishing fever and ensuring their intake of a lot of liquids. However, all three bacterial meningitis forms need the instant medical attention from a doctor and treatment can be done with numerous antibiotics. Proper meningitis treatment with antibiotics for most bacterial meningitis types should decrease the rate of fatality to about 10% although the rate of fatality is elevated in infants, elderly people and individuals with some causal medical conditions.

Prevention of meningitis

Transmission of bacterial and viral meningitis may be prevented by lifting the hygiene level among people with infection risk and among persons who may be propagating the disease. Proper technique of hand washing is of primary importance. Hands should be washed thoroughly after respiratory secretions exposure together with handling of mucky handkerchiefs and tissues. People should cover the mouth and nose while coughing or sneezing and throw away used tissues quickly.

Putting The Monkeypox Treatments In Effect

The symptoms of monkeypox are more or less similar to smallpox. This virus is very closely related to the smallpox called as Variola. The monkeypox, smallpox and cowpox are all of the same family. The disease of monkeypox is easily transferred to the human beings from the animals. The mortality rate of monkeypox is less as compared to that of smallpox. In the disease of monkeypox it creates small pimple like boils on the skin which are near similar to smallpox. This disease is not as deadly as smallpox.

The monkeypox virus has been known to be transmitted from animals or rodents to the human beings. This happens by direct contact with the animals. This disease has not been frequently noted in the human beings. In the initial stages of monkeypox the person experiences fever and nausea and also malaise. Once the fever occurs after a time period of four to seven days the small pimples or lesions occur on the face, trunk which forms into ulcers. These lesions get cleared up within a time span of 14 to 21 days. There could be some scars after the lesions get dried up.

The monkeypox treatments consist of vaccination which has to be done in combination with the smallpox vaccine. This is necessary because it is almost similar to smallpox. The vaccine proves to be more useful when the person is taking an antiviral drugs or any other related medication. The monkeypox treatments if taken on the right time help the patient to recover faster. In most of the cases the patients recover faster and the vaccine is one of the best treatments for this disease.

The experts recommend the vaccination within a time period of 2 weeks after the disease is contracted. The ideal time is within four days from the starting of the monkeypox. This is considered as one of the ideal and best monkeypox treatments. The vaccine called as Vaccinia immune globulin has to be administered on the household workers, the people who work in farm and are in constant touch with the animals, health care workers – they are people who can contract this disease faster as compared to others.

The monkeypox treatments where the cases have been referred to be severe and out of control the medicine known as Cidofovir has been recommended by the experts. This is useful only for those who are in the fatal stage of this disease. There are many antiviral medicines which have been introduced in the market for the treatment of this disease. The latest medicine which has come to the market is ST-246 which has been proved effective for therapeutic, prophylactic and post exposure treatments. There are vaccines which are being developed by Aventis which care supposed to treat the monkeypox. These vaccines are still undergoing the clinical trials and hence waiting for the approval from the experts.

The experts always suggest that the best monkeypox treatments are prevention of this disease among the human beings. It is necessary that the patient should follow the right medication and rest at home. The persons who are more prone to contract the monkeypox should make sure that they isolate themselves from the contact and respiratory areas. This should be strictly exercised to prevent the spreading of the disease. It is not at all advisable to have a direct contact with the lesions or formites. These are infectious and hence always avoid getting in contact with these lesions.

How Tests Are Conducted For Monkeypox Symptoms

In 1970, the disease was seen in humans as well. Through respiratory droplets, this disease gets spread from person to person. If the body fluids of an infected person drops into bedding or clothing and if it is used by any other person then, he may get affected by this disease.

Monkeypox Symptoms

This disease is milder than smallpox and the monkeypox symptoms include rashes, muscle aches, joint aches, fever, fatigue, swelling of lymph nodes, diarrhea, sore throats, breathing problem, mouth sores, headache, feeling discomfort, fluid filled skin bumps, flu like symptoms, etc. For 3 to 7 days, the symptoms are worst and then, the crusts are formed. The pox develops through various stages. After fever, rashes come on the face or other body parts. Smallpox vaccine is used for monkeypox disease however; it is not proven that it will fully cure this disease.

Humans have not used this vaccine as smallpox vaccine discontinued when the smallpox disease was eradicated. The fatality ratios range from 1 to 10% in Africa. Even pets can get this infection so people should be careful about their pets. People should keep away their pets from infected animals so that it does not get spread. Hence, if a pet is dying of monkeypox then, do not bury it in the ground.

Conducting Different Tests

The symptoms of other diseases and monkeypox symptoms are same and so doctors get confused which disease is it. Hence, doctors diagnose each and every symptom properly, history of the patient’s condition and after fully analyzing, they come to know about the disease properly. Doctors try to know about patient’s previous medications and travel history for identifying if the patient has got the disease from that place. Even physical examinations of patients are also done to find out the monkeypox symptoms. There are certain lab tests done if the disease is confirmed and dermatologist treats the disease.

Other tests for dermatitis, chicken pox, scabies, herpes zoster, etc. are also done. Blood samples, electronic microscopy, skin biopsy, throat swab culture test etc are done. Hence, many tests are conducted and then, lastly doctors find the result.

Prevention of Monkeypox

There should be proper hygiene and if any person is coming out of a patient’s room then, they must wash their hands twice to clean themselves. The patient having monkeypox symptoms should be kept separately in different rooms and should not come in contact with anybody. A mask should be there in everybody’s face who is going to meet the patient so that no virus get transmitted to them. The items used by the patient must be cleaned properly and a disposable glove should be used for cleaning all the objects. If any other person gets affected with the same symptom then, he must immediately contact the doctor. The boils on the patient’s body must be covered with full clothing.

However, till now there are no monkeypox treatments as people use the smallpox vaccine as a treatment. The research is going on and there are organizations like the World Health Organization who are working hard to make a medicine for this disease and to reduce the monkeypox symptoms. A person who is affected by this disease may feel sad and their families also get disturbed who are close to that person but they must have confidence in them that they will get cured. Even, pets should get careful treatment so that it does not get spread.